将数字范围转换为另一个范围,保持比例

2020/10/31 15:03 · python ·  · 0评论

我正在尝试将一个数字范围转换为另一个数字范围,并保持比率。数学不是我的强项。

我有一个图像文件,其中点值的范围可能从-16000.00到16000.00,尽管典型范围可能小得多。我想要做的是将这些值压缩到0-100的整数范围内,其中0是最小点的值,而100是最大点的值。即使丢失了一些精度,它们之间的所有点都应保持相对比率,我想在python中做到这一点,但即使是通用算法也足够。我更喜欢可以调整最小/最大或任意一个范围的算法(即,第二个范围可以是-50到800,而不是0到100)。

NewValue = (((OldValue - OldMin) * (NewMax - NewMin)) / (OldMax - OldMin)) + NewMin

或者更具可读性:

OldRange = (OldMax - OldMin)  
NewRange = (NewMax - NewMin)  
NewValue = (((OldValue - OldMin) * NewRange) / OldRange) + NewMin

或者,如果您想保护旧范围为0(OldMin = OldMax的情况,请执行以下操作

OldRange = (OldMax - OldMin)
if (OldRange == 0)
    NewValue = NewMin
else
{
    NewRange = (NewMax - NewMin)  
    NewValue = (((OldValue - OldMin) * NewRange) / OldRange) + NewMin
}

请注意,在这种情况下,我们被迫任意选择一个可能的新范围值。根据上下文,明智的选择可能是:NewMin见样本),NewMax(NewMin + NewMax) / 2

这是一个简单的线性转换。

new_value = ( (old_value - old_min) / (old_max - old_min) ) * (new_max - new_min) + new_min

因此,将-16000到16000范围内的10000转换为0到100的新比例会产生:

old_value = 10000
old_min = -16000
old_max = 16000
new_min = 0
new_max = 100

new_value = ( ( 10000 - -16000 ) / (16000 - -16000) ) * (100 - 0) + 0
          = 81.25

实际上,在某些情况下,以上答案可能会中断。例如错误输入值,错误输入范围,负输入/输出范围。

def remap( x, oMin, oMax, nMin, nMax ):

    #range check
    if oMin == oMax:
        print "Warning: Zero input range"
        return None

    if nMin == nMax:
        print "Warning: Zero output range"
        return None

    #check reversed input range
    reverseInput = False
    oldMin = min( oMin, oMax )
    oldMax = max( oMin, oMax )
    if not oldMin == oMin:
        reverseInput = True

    #check reversed output range
    reverseOutput = False   
    newMin = min( nMin, nMax )
    newMax = max( nMin, nMax )
    if not newMin == nMin :
        reverseOutput = True

    portion = (x-oldMin)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin)
    if reverseInput:
        portion = (oldMax-x)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin)

    result = portion + newMin
    if reverseOutput:
        result = newMax - portion

    return result

#test cases
print remap( 25.0, 0.0, 100.0, 1.0, -1.0 ), "==", 0.5
print remap( 25.0, 100.0, -100.0, -1.0, 1.0 ), "==", -0.25
print remap( -125.0, -100.0, -200.0, 1.0, -1.0 ), "==", 0.5
print remap( -125.0, -200.0, -100.0, -1.0, 1.0 ), "==", 0.5
#even when value is out of bound
print remap( -20.0, 0.0, 100.0, 0.0, 1.0 ), "==", -0.2

有一种情况是,当您检查的所有值都相同时,@ jerryjvl的代码将返回NaN。

if (OldMin != OldMax && NewMin != NewMax):
    return (((OldValue - OldMin) * (NewMax - NewMin)) / (OldMax - OldMin)) + NewMin
else:
    return (NewMax + NewMin) / 2

我没有为此挖掘出BNF,但是Arduino文档中有一个很好的函数示例,它的功能很强大。我可以在Python中使用此方法,只需添加def重命名即可重映射(因为map是内置的)并删除类型强制转换和花括号(即仅删除所有“ long”)。

原版的

long map(long x, long in_min, long in_max, long out_min, long out_max)
{
  return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min;
}

蟒蛇

def remap(x, in_min, in_max, out_min, out_max):
  return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min

https://www.arduino.cc/en/reference/map

在PenguinTD提供的清单中,我不明白为什么范围会被逆转,它无需逆转范围就可以工作。线性范围转换基于线性方程Y=Xm+n,其中mn是从给定范围导出的。与其将范围称为minmax,不如将它们称为1和2更好。因此,公式为:

Y = (((X - x1) * (y2 - y1)) / (x2 - x1)) + y1

Y=y1何时何地X=x1Y=y2何时何地X=x2x1x2y1y2可被赋予任何positivenegative值。在宏中定义表达式使其更有用,然后可以与任何参数名称一起使用。

#define RangeConv(X, x1, x2, y1, y2) (((float)((X - x1) * (y2 - y1)) / (x2 - x1)) + y1)

float投将确保浮点除法在所有参数都是的情况下integer的值。根据应用情况,可能不必检查范围x1=x2y1==y2

以下是一些简短的Python函数,可简化复制和粘贴操作,其中包括缩放整个列表的函数。

def scale_number(unscaled, to_min, to_max, from_min, from_max):
    return (to_max-to_min)*(unscaled-from_min)/(from_max-from_min)+to_min

def scale_list(l, to_min, to_max):
    return [scale_number(i, to_min, to_max, min(l), max(l)) for i in l]

可以这样使用:

scale_list([1,3,4,5], 0, 100)

[0.0、50.0、75.0、100.0]

就我而言,我想按比例绘制对数曲线,如下所示:

scale_list([math.log(i+1) for i in range(5)], 0, 50)

[0.0,21.533827903669653,34.130309724299266,43.06765580733931,50.0]

我在js中解决的一个问题中使用了该解决方案,所以我想我会分享翻译。感谢您的解释和解决方案。

function remap( x, oMin, oMax, nMin, nMax ){
//range check
if (oMin == oMax){
    console.log("Warning: Zero input range");
    return None;
};

if (nMin == nMax){
    console.log("Warning: Zero output range");
    return None
}

//check reversed input range
var reverseInput = false;
oldMin = Math.min( oMin, oMax );
oldMax = Math.max( oMin, oMax );
if (oldMin != oMin){
    reverseInput = true;
}

//check reversed output range
var reverseOutput = false;  
newMin = Math.min( nMin, nMax )
newMax = Math.max( nMin, nMax )
if (newMin != nMin){
    reverseOutput = true;
};

var portion = (x-oldMin)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin)
if (reverseInput){
    portion = (oldMax-x)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin);
};

var result = portion + newMin
if (reverseOutput){
    result = newMax - portion;
}

return result;
}

C ++变体

我发现PenguinTD的解决方案很有用,所以如果有人需要,我可以将其移植到C ++:

浮点重新映射(float x,float oMin,float oMax,float nMin,float nMax){

//range check
if( oMin == oMax) {
    //std::cout<< "Warning: Zero input range";
    return -1;    }

if( nMin == nMax){
    //std::cout<<"Warning: Zero output range";
    return -1;        }

//check reversed input range
bool reverseInput = false;
float oldMin = min( oMin, oMax );
float oldMax = max( oMin, oMax );
if (oldMin == oMin)
    reverseInput = true;

//check reversed output range
bool reverseOutput = false;  
float newMin = min( nMin, nMax );
float newMax = max( nMin, nMax );
if (newMin == nMin)
    reverseOutput = true;

float portion = (x-oldMin)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin);
if (reverseInput)
    portion = (oldMax-x)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin);

float result = portion + newMin;
if (reverseOutput)
    result = newMax - portion;

return result; }

PHP端口

发现PenguinTD的解决方案很有帮助,因此我将其移植到PHP。救救自己!

/**
* =====================================
*              Remap Range            
* =====================================
* - Convert one range to another. (including value)
*
* @param    int $intValue   The value in the old range you wish to convert
* @param    int $oMin       The minimum of the old range
* @param    int $oMax       The maximum of the old range
* @param    int $nMin       The minimum of the new range
* @param    int $nMax       The maximum of the new range
*
* @return   float $fResult  The old value converted to the new range
*/
function remapRange($intValue, $oMin, $oMax, $nMin, $nMax) {
    // Range check
    if ($oMin == $oMax) {
        echo 'Warning: Zero input range';
        return false;
    }

    if ($nMin == $nMax) {
        echo 'Warning: Zero output range';
        return false;
    }

    // Check reversed input range
    $bReverseInput = false;
    $intOldMin = min($oMin, $oMax);
    $intOldMax = max($oMin, $oMax);
    if ($intOldMin != $oMin) {
        $bReverseInput = true;
    }

    // Check reversed output range
    $bReverseOutput = false;
    $intNewMin = min($nMin, $nMax);
    $intNewMax = max($nMin, $nMax);
    if ($intNewMin != $nMin) {
        $bReverseOutput = true;
    }

    $fRatio = ($intValue - $intOldMin) * ($intNewMax - $intNewMin) / ($intOldMax - $intOldMin);
    if ($bReverseInput) {
        $fRatio = ($intOldMax - $intValue) * ($intNewMax - $intNewMin) / ($intOldMax - $intOldMin);
    }

    $fResult = $fRatio + $intNewMin;
    if ($bReverseOutput) {
        $fResult = $intNewMax - $fRatio;
    }

    return $fResult;
}

这是一个Javascript版本,它返回一个函数,该函数对预定的源范围和目标范围进行重新缩放,从而使每次必须执行的计算量最小化。

// This function returns a function bound to the 
// min/max source & target ranges given.
// oMin, oMax = source
// nMin, nMax = dest.
function makeRangeMapper(oMin, oMax, nMin, nMax ){
    //range check
    if (oMin == oMax){
        console.log("Warning: Zero input range");
        return undefined;
    };

    if (nMin == nMax){
        console.log("Warning: Zero output range");
        return undefined
    }

    //check reversed input range
    var reverseInput = false;
    let oldMin = Math.min( oMin, oMax );
    let oldMax = Math.max( oMin, oMax );
    if (oldMin != oMin){
        reverseInput = true;
    }

    //check reversed output range
    var reverseOutput = false;  
    let newMin = Math.min( nMin, nMax )
    let newMax = Math.max( nMin, nMax )
    if (newMin != nMin){
        reverseOutput = true;
    }

    // Hot-rod the most common case.
    if (!reverseInput && !reverseOutput) {
        let dNew = newMax-newMin;
        let dOld = oldMax-oldMin;
        return (x)=>{
            return ((x-oldMin)* dNew / dOld) + newMin;
        }
    }

    return (x)=>{
        let portion;
        if (reverseInput){
            portion = (oldMax-x)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin);
        } else {
            portion = (x-oldMin)*(newMax-newMin)/(oldMax-oldMin)
        }
        let result;
        if (reverseOutput){
            result = newMax - portion;
        } else {
            result = portion + newMin;
        }

        return result;
    }   
}

这是使用此功能将0-1缩放为-0x80000000,0x7FFFFFFF的示例

let normTo32Fn = makeRangeMapper(0, 1, -0x80000000, 0x7FFFFFFF);
let fs = normTo32Fn(0.5);
let fs2 = normTo32Fn(0);

Java版本

无论您喂什么食物,它始终有效!

我把所有内容都扩展了,以便于学习。当然,最后的舍入是可选的。

    private long remap(long p, long Amin, long Amax, long Bmin, long Bmax ) {

    double deltaA = Amax - Amin;
    double deltaB = Bmax - Bmin;
    double scale  = deltaB / deltaA;
    double negA   = -1 * Amin;
    double offset = (negA * scale) + Bmin;
    double q      = (p * scale) + offset;
    return Math.round(q);

}

我个人使用了支持泛型的帮助程序类(与Swift 3、4.x兼容)

struct Rescale<Type : BinaryFloatingPoint> {
    typealias RescaleDomain = (lowerBound: Type, upperBound: Type)

    var fromDomain: RescaleDomain
    var toDomain: RescaleDomain

    init(from: RescaleDomain, to: RescaleDomain) {
        self.fromDomain = from
        self.toDomain = to
    }

    func interpolate(_ x: Type ) -> Type {
        return self.toDomain.lowerBound * (1 - x) + self.toDomain.upperBound * x;
    }

    func uninterpolate(_ x: Type) -> Type {
        let b = (self.fromDomain.upperBound - self.fromDomain.lowerBound) != 0 ? self.fromDomain.upperBound - self.fromDomain.lowerBound : 1 / self.fromDomain.upperBound;
        return (x - self.fromDomain.lowerBound) / b
    }

    func rescale(_ x: Type )  -> Type {
        return interpolate( uninterpolate(x) )
    }
}

例如:

   let rescaler = Rescale<Float>(from: (-1, 1), to: (0, 100))
    
   print(rescaler.rescale(0)) // OUTPUT: 50

捷径/简化提案

 NewRange/OldRange = Handy multiplicand or HM
 Convert OldValue in OldRange to NewValue in NewRange = 
 (OldValue - OldMin x HM) + NewMin

韦恩

本示例将歌曲的当前位置转换为20-40的角度范围。

    /// <summary>
    /// This test converts Current songtime to an angle in a range. 
    /// </summary>
    [Fact]
    public void ConvertRangeTests()
    {            
       //Convert a songs time to an angle of a range 20 - 40
        var result = ConvertAndGetCurrentValueOfRange(
            TimeSpan.Zero, TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5.4),
            20, 40, 
            2.7
            );

        Assert.True(result == 30);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets the current value from the mixValue maxValue range.        
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="startTime">Start of the song</param>
    /// <param name="duration"></param>
    /// <param name="minValue"></param>
    /// <param name="maxValue"></param>
    /// <param name="value">Current time</param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public double ConvertAndGetCurrentValueOfRange(
                TimeSpan startTime,
                TimeSpan duration,
                double minValue,
                double maxValue,
                double value)
    {
        var timeRange = duration - startTime;
        var newRange = maxValue - minValue;
        var ratio = newRange / timeRange.TotalMinutes;
        var newValue = value * ratio;
        var currentValue= newValue + minValue;
        return currentValue;
    }

列表理解一线解决方案

color_array_new = [int((((x - min(node_sizes)) * 99) / (max(node_sizes) - min(node_sizes))) + 1) for x in node_sizes]

较长的版本

def colour_specter(waste_amount):
color_array = []
OldRange = max(waste_amount) - min(waste_amount)
NewRange = 99
for number_value in waste_amount:
    NewValue = int((((number_value - min(waste_amount)) * NewRange) / OldRange) + 1)
    color_array.append(NewValue)
print(color_array)
return color_array

我在R中编写了一个函数来执行此操作。方法与上面相同,但是我需要在R中执行多次,因此我想分享一下,以防它对任何人有帮助。

convertRange <- function(
  oldValue,
  oldRange = c(-16000.00, 16000.00), 
  newRange = c(0, 100),
  returnInt = TRUE # the poster asked for an integer, so this is an option
){
  oldMin <- oldRange[1]
  oldMax <- oldRange[2]
  newMin <- newRange[1]
  newMax <- newRange[2]
  newValue = (((oldValue - oldMin)* (newMax - newMin)) / (oldMax - oldMin)) + newMin
  
  if(returnInt){
   return(round(newValue))
  } else {
   return(newValue)
  }
}

添加了带有数学解释的KOTLIN版本

考虑我们有一个介于(OMin,Omax)的小数位数,并且我们在这个范围内有一个值X

我们想要将其转换为比例 (NMin,NMax)

我们知道X并且需要找到Y,比率必须相同:

 => (Y-NMin)/(NMax-NMin) = (X-OMin)/(OMax-OMin)  
      
 =>  (Y-NMin)/NewRange = (X-OMin)/OldRange 

 =>   Y = ((X-OMin)*NewRange)/oldRange)+NMin  Answer
   

务实地,我们可以这样写这样的公式:

 private fun  convertScale(oldValueToConvert:Int): Float {
       // Old Scale 50-100
       val oldScaleMin = 50
       val oldScaleMax = 100
       val oldScaleRange= (oldScaleMax - oldScaleMin)

       //new Scale 0-1
       val newScaleMin = 0.0f
       val newScaleMax = 1.0f
       val newScaleRange=  (newScaleMax - newScaleMin)
     
       return ((oldValueToConvert - oldScaleMin)* newScaleRange/ oldScaleRange) + newScaleMin
    }

爪哇

/**
     * 
     * @param x
     * @param inMin
     * @param inMax
     * @param outMin
     * @param outMax
     * @return
     */
        private long normalize(long x, long inMin, long inMax, long outMin, long outMax) {
          long outRange = outMax - outMin;
          long inRange  = inMax - inMin;
          return (x - inMin) *outRange / inRange + outMin;
        }

用法:

float brightness = normalize(progress, 0, 10, 0,255);
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