有Pytz时区列表吗?

2020/10/20 21:42 · python ·  · 0评论

我想知道Python库pytz中timezone参数的所有可能值是什么。怎么做?

for tz in pytz.all_timezones:
    print tz


Africa/Abidjan
Africa/Accra
Africa/Addis_Ababa
Africa/Algiers
Africa/Asmara
Africa/Asmera
Africa/Bamako
Africa/Bangui
Africa/Banjul
Africa/Bissau
Africa/Blantyre
Africa/Brazzaville
Africa/Bujumbura
Africa/Cairo
Africa/Casablanca
Africa/Ceuta
Africa/Conakry
Africa/Dakar
Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Africa/Djibouti
Africa/Douala
Africa/El_Aaiun
Africa/Freetown
Africa/Gaborone
Africa/Harare
Africa/Johannesburg
Africa/Juba
Africa/Kampala
Africa/Khartoum
Africa/Kigali
Africa/Kinshasa
Africa/Lagos
Africa/Libreville
Africa/Lome
Africa/Luanda
Africa/Lubumbashi
Africa/Lusaka
Africa/Malabo
Africa/Maputo
Africa/Maseru
Africa/Mbabane
Africa/Mogadishu
Africa/Monrovia
Africa/Nairobi
Africa/Ndjamena
Africa/Niamey
Africa/Nouakchott
Africa/Ouagadougou
Africa/Porto-Novo
Africa/Sao_Tome
Africa/Timbuktu
Africa/Tripoli
Africa/Tunis
Africa/Windhoek
America/Adak
America/Anchorage
America/Anguilla
America/Antigua
America/Araguaina
America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires
America/Argentina/Catamarca
America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
America/Argentina/Cordoba
America/Argentina/Jujuy
America/Argentina/La_Rioja
America/Argentina/Mendoza
America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos
America/Argentina/Salta
America/Argentina/San_Juan
America/Argentina/San_Luis
America/Argentina/Tucuman
America/Argentina/Ushuaia
America/Aruba
America/Asuncion
America/Atikokan
America/Atka
America/Bahia
America/Bahia_Banderas
America/Barbados
America/Belem
America/Belize
America/Blanc-Sablon
America/Boa_Vista
America/Bogota
America/Boise
America/Buenos_Aires
America/Cambridge_Bay
America/Campo_Grande
America/Cancun
America/Caracas
America/Catamarca
America/Cayenne
America/Cayman
America/Chicago
America/Chihuahua
America/Coral_Harbour
America/Cordoba
America/Costa_Rica
America/Creston
America/Cuiaba
America/Curacao
America/Danmarkshavn
America/Dawson
America/Dawson_Creek
America/Denver
America/Detroit
America/Dominica
America/Edmonton
America/Eirunepe
America/El_Salvador
America/Ensenada
America/Fort_Wayne
America/Fortaleza
America/Glace_Bay
America/Godthab
America/Goose_Bay
America/Grand_Turk
America/Grenada
America/Guadeloupe
America/Guatemala
America/Guayaquil
America/Guyana
America/Halifax
America/Havana
America/Hermosillo
America/Indiana/Indianapolis
America/Indiana/Knox
America/Indiana/Marengo
America/Indiana/Petersburg
America/Indiana/Tell_City
America/Indiana/Vevay
America/Indiana/Vincennes
America/Indiana/Winamac
America/Indianapolis
America/Inuvik
America/Iqaluit
America/Jamaica
America/Jujuy
America/Juneau
America/Kentucky/Louisville
America/Kentucky/Monticello
America/Knox_IN
America/Kralendijk
America/La_Paz
America/Lima
America/Los_Angeles
America/Louisville
America/Lower_Princes
America/Maceio
America/Managua
America/Manaus
America/Marigot
America/Martinique
America/Matamoros
America/Mazatlan
America/Mendoza
America/Menominee
America/Merida
America/Metlakatla
America/Mexico_City
America/Miquelon
America/Moncton
America/Monterrey
America/Montevideo
America/Montreal
America/Montserrat
America/Nassau
America/New_York
America/Nipigon
America/Nome
America/Noronha
America/North_Dakota/Beulah
America/North_Dakota/Center
America/North_Dakota/New_Salem
America/Ojinaga
America/Panama
America/Pangnirtung
America/Paramaribo
America/Phoenix
America/Port-au-Prince
America/Port_of_Spain
America/Porto_Acre
America/Porto_Velho
America/Puerto_Rico
America/Rainy_River
America/Rankin_Inlet
America/Recife
America/Regina
America/Resolute
America/Rio_Branco
America/Rosario
America/Santa_Isabel
America/Santarem
America/Santiago
America/Santo_Domingo
America/Sao_Paulo
America/Scoresbysund
America/Shiprock
America/Sitka
America/St_Barthelemy
America/St_Johns
America/St_Kitts
America/St_Lucia
America/St_Thomas
America/St_Vincent
America/Swift_Current
America/Tegucigalpa
America/Thule
America/Thunder_Bay
America/Tijuana
America/Toronto
America/Tortola
America/Vancouver
America/Virgin
America/Whitehorse
America/Winnipeg
America/Yakutat
America/Yellowknife
Antarctica/Casey
Antarctica/Davis
Antarctica/DumontDUrville
Antarctica/Macquarie
Antarctica/Mawson
Antarctica/McMurdo
Antarctica/Palmer
Antarctica/Rothera
Antarctica/South_Pole
Antarctica/Syowa
Antarctica/Vostok
Arctic/Longyearbyen
Asia/Aden
Asia/Almaty
Asia/Amman
Asia/Anadyr
Asia/Aqtau
Asia/Aqtobe
Asia/Ashgabat
Asia/Ashkhabad
Asia/Baghdad
Asia/Bahrain
Asia/Baku
Asia/Bangkok
Asia/Beirut
Asia/Bishkek
Asia/Brunei
Asia/Calcutta
Asia/Choibalsan
Asia/Chongqing
Asia/Chungking
Asia/Colombo
Asia/Dacca
Asia/Damascus
Asia/Dhaka
Asia/Dili
Asia/Dubai
Asia/Dushanbe
Asia/Gaza
Asia/Harbin
Asia/Hebron
Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh
Asia/Hong_Kong
Asia/Hovd
Asia/Irkutsk
Asia/Istanbul
Asia/Jakarta
Asia/Jayapura
Asia/Jerusalem
Asia/Kabul
Asia/Kamchatka
Asia/Karachi
Asia/Kashgar
Asia/Kathmandu
Asia/Katmandu
Asia/Kolkata
Asia/Krasnoyarsk
Asia/Kuala_Lumpur
Asia/Kuching
Asia/Kuwait
Asia/Macao
Asia/Macau
Asia/Magadan
Asia/Makassar
Asia/Manila
Asia/Muscat
Asia/Nicosia
Asia/Novokuznetsk
Asia/Novosibirsk
Asia/Omsk
Asia/Oral
Asia/Phnom_Penh
Asia/Pontianak
Asia/Pyongyang
Asia/Qatar
Asia/Qyzylorda
Asia/Rangoon
Asia/Riyadh
Asia/Saigon
Asia/Sakhalin
Asia/Samarkand
Asia/Seoul
Asia/Shanghai
Asia/Singapore
Asia/Taipei
Asia/Tashkent
Asia/Tbilisi
Asia/Tehran
Asia/Tel_Aviv
Asia/Thimbu
Asia/Thimphu
Asia/Tokyo
Asia/Ujung_Pandang
Asia/Ulaanbaatar
Asia/Ulan_Bator
Asia/Urumqi
Asia/Vientiane
Asia/Vladivostok
Asia/Yakutsk
Asia/Yekaterinburg
Asia/Yerevan
Atlantic/Azores
Atlantic/Bermuda
Atlantic/Canary
Atlantic/Cape_Verde
Atlantic/Faeroe
Atlantic/Faroe
Atlantic/Jan_Mayen
Atlantic/Madeira
Atlantic/Reykjavik
Atlantic/South_Georgia
Atlantic/St_Helena
Atlantic/Stanley
Australia/ACT
Australia/Adelaide
Australia/Brisbane
Australia/Broken_Hill
Australia/Canberra
Australia/Currie
Australia/Darwin
Australia/Eucla
Australia/Hobart
Australia/LHI
Australia/Lindeman
Australia/Lord_Howe
Australia/Melbourne
Australia/NSW
Australia/North
Australia/Perth
Australia/Queensland
Australia/South
Australia/Sydney
Australia/Tasmania
Australia/Victoria
Australia/West
Australia/Yancowinna
Brazil/Acre
Brazil/DeNoronha
Brazil/East
Brazil/West
CET
CST6CDT
Canada/Atlantic
Canada/Central
Canada/East-Saskatchewan
Canada/Eastern
Canada/Mountain
Canada/Newfoundland
Canada/Pacific
Canada/Saskatchewan
Canada/Yukon
Chile/Continental
Chile/EasterIsland
Cuba
EET
EST
EST5EDT
Egypt
Eire
Etc/GMT
Etc/GMT+0
Etc/GMT+1
Etc/GMT+10
Etc/GMT+11
Etc/GMT+12
Etc/GMT+2
Etc/GMT+3
Etc/GMT+4
Etc/GMT+5
Etc/GMT+6
Etc/GMT+7
Etc/GMT+8
Etc/GMT+9
Etc/GMT-0
Etc/GMT-1
Etc/GMT-10
Etc/GMT-11
Etc/GMT-12
Etc/GMT-13
Etc/GMT-14
Etc/GMT-2
Etc/GMT-3
Etc/GMT-4
Etc/GMT-5
Etc/GMT-6
Etc/GMT-7
Etc/GMT-8
Etc/GMT-9
Etc/GMT0
Etc/Greenwich
Etc/UCT
Etc/UTC
Etc/Universal
Etc/Zulu
Europe/Amsterdam
Europe/Andorra
Europe/Athens
Europe/Belfast
Europe/Belgrade
Europe/Berlin
Europe/Bratislava
Europe/Brussels
Europe/Bucharest
Europe/Budapest
Europe/Chisinau
Europe/Copenhagen
Europe/Dublin
Europe/Gibraltar
Europe/Guernsey
Europe/Helsinki
Europe/Isle_of_Man
Europe/Istanbul
Europe/Jersey
Europe/Kaliningrad
Europe/Kiev
Europe/Lisbon
Europe/Ljubljana
Europe/London
Europe/Luxembourg
Europe/Madrid
Europe/Malta
Europe/Mariehamn
Europe/Minsk
Europe/Monaco
Europe/Moscow
Europe/Nicosia
Europe/Oslo
Europe/Paris
Europe/Podgorica
Europe/Prague
Europe/Riga
Europe/Rome
Europe/Samara
Europe/San_Marino
Europe/Sarajevo
Europe/Simferopol
Europe/Skopje
Europe/Sofia
Europe/Stockholm
Europe/Tallinn
Europe/Tirane
Europe/Tiraspol
Europe/Uzhgorod
Europe/Vaduz
Europe/Vatican
Europe/Vienna
Europe/Vilnius
Europe/Volgograd
Europe/Warsaw
Europe/Zagreb
Europe/Zaporozhye
Europe/Zurich
GB
GB-Eire
GMT
GMT+0
GMT-0
GMT0
Greenwich
HST
Hongkong
Iceland
Indian/Antananarivo
Indian/Chagos
Indian/Christmas
Indian/Cocos
Indian/Comoro
Indian/Kerguelen
Indian/Mahe
Indian/Maldives
Indian/Mauritius
Indian/Mayotte
Indian/Reunion
Iran
Israel
Jamaica
Japan
Kwajalein
Libya
MET
MST
MST7MDT
Mexico/BajaNorte
Mexico/BajaSur
Mexico/General
NZ
NZ-CHAT
Navajo
PRC
PST8PDT
Pacific/Apia
Pacific/Auckland
Pacific/Chatham
Pacific/Chuuk
Pacific/Easter
Pacific/Efate
Pacific/Enderbury
Pacific/Fakaofo
Pacific/Fiji
Pacific/Funafuti
Pacific/Galapagos
Pacific/Gambier
Pacific/Guadalcanal
Pacific/Guam
Pacific/Honolulu
Pacific/Johnston
Pacific/Kiritimati
Pacific/Kosrae
Pacific/Kwajalein
Pacific/Majuro
Pacific/Marquesas
Pacific/Midway
Pacific/Nauru
Pacific/Niue
Pacific/Norfolk
Pacific/Noumea
Pacific/Pago_Pago
Pacific/Palau
Pacific/Pitcairn
Pacific/Pohnpei
Pacific/Ponape
Pacific/Port_Moresby
Pacific/Rarotonga
Pacific/Saipan
Pacific/Samoa
Pacific/Tahiti
Pacific/Tarawa
Pacific/Tongatapu
Pacific/Truk
Pacific/Wake
Pacific/Wallis
Pacific/Yap
Poland
Portugal
ROC
ROK
Singapore
Turkey
UCT
US/Alaska
US/Aleutian
US/Arizona
US/Central
US/East-Indiana
US/Eastern
US/Hawaii
US/Indiana-Starke
US/Michigan
US/Mountain
US/Pacific
US/Pacific-New
US/Samoa
UTC
Universal
W-SU
WET
Zulu

您可以使用列出所有可用的时区pytz.all_timezones

In [40]: import pytz
In [41]: pytz.all_timezones
Out[42]: 
['Africa/Abidjan',
 'Africa/Accra',
 'Africa/Addis_Ababa',
 ...]

还有pytz.common_timezones

In [45]: len(pytz.common_timezones)
Out[45]: 403

In [46]: len(pytz.all_timezones)
Out[46]: 563

不要创建自己的列表-pytz内置列表

import pytz
set(pytz.all_timezones_set)  
>>> {'Europe/Vienna', 'America/New_York', 'America/Argentina/Salta',..}

然后,您可以应用时区

import datetime
tz = pytz.timezone('Pacific/Johnston')
ct = datetime.datetime.now(tz=tz)
>>> ct.isoformat()
2017-01-13T11:29:22.601991-05:00

或者,如果你已经有了一个datetime对象TZ知道(试验过的):

# This timestamp is in UTC
my_ct = datetime.datetime.now(tz=pytz.UTC)

# Now convert it to another timezone
new_ct = my_ct.astimezone(tz)
>>> new_ct.isoformat()
2017-01-13T11:29:22.601991-05:00

时区名称是指定时区的唯一可靠方法。

您可以在此处找到时区名称列表:http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones
请注意,此列表包含许多别名,例如美国/东部表示时区,通常被正确称为America / New_York。

如果您以编程方式希望从zoneinfo数据库中创建此列表,则可以从zoneinfo数据库中的zone.tab文件中对其进行编译。我认为pytz没有API来获取它们,我也不认为它会非常有用。

此处是国家代码,名称,大洲,大写字母和pytz时区的Python列表。

countries = [
{'timezones': ['Europe/Paris'], 'code': 'FR', 'continent': 'Europe', 'name': 'France', 'capital': 'Paris'}
{'timezones': ['Africa/Kampala'], 'code': 'UG', 'continent': 'Africa', 'name': 'Uganda', 'capital': 'Kampala'},
{'timezones': ['Asia/Colombo'], 'code': 'LK', 'continent': 'Asia', 'name': 'Sri Lanka', 'capital': 'Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte'},
{'timezones': ['Asia/Riyadh'], 'code': 'SA', 'continent': 'Asia', 'name': 'Saudi Arabia', 'capital': 'Riyadh'},
{'timezones': ['Africa/Luanda'], 'code': 'AO', 'continent': 'Africa', 'name': 'Angola', 'capital': 'Luanda'},    
{'timezones': ['Europe/Vienna'], 'code': 'AT', 'continent': 'Europe', 'name': 'Austria', 'capital': 'Vienna'},
{'timezones': ['Asia/Calcutta'], 'code': 'IN', 'continent': 'Asia', 'name': 'India', 'capital': 'New Delhi'},
{'timezones': ['Asia/Dubai'], 'code': 'AE', 'continent': 'Asia', 'name': 'United Arab Emirates', 'capital': 'Abu Dhabi'},
{'timezones': ['Europe/London'], 'code': 'GB', 'continent': 'Europe', 'name': 'United Kingdom', 'capital': 'London'},
]

有关完整列表:
Gist Github

希望能帮助到你。

编辑:如果您不进一步拒绝这个答案,我将不胜感激。这个答案是错误的,但我宁愿保留它作为历史记录。尽管pytz接口是否容易出错是有争议的,但它可以完成dateutil.tz无法做到的事情,尤其是在过去或将来的夏时制方面。我已经在“ Python的时区”文章中坦白记录了我的经验


如果您使用的是类似Unix的平台,建议您避免使用pytz,而只需查看/ usr / share / zoneinfo。dateutil.tz可以利用那里的信息。

以下代码显示了pytz可能带来的问题。当我第一次发现它时,我感到震惊。(有趣的是,yum在CentOS 7上安装的pytz不会出现此问题。)

import pytz
import dateutil.tz
from datetime import datetime
print((datetime(2017,2,13,14,29,29, tzinfo=pytz.timezone('Asia/Shanghai'))
     - datetime(2017,2,13,14,29,29, tzinfo=pytz.timezone('UTC')))
     .total_seconds())
print((datetime(2017,2,13,14,29,29, tzinfo=dateutil.tz.gettz('Asia/Shanghai'))
     - datetime(2017,2,13,14,29,29, tzinfo=dateutil.tz.tzutc()))
     .total_seconds())

-29160.0
-28800.0

即pytz创建的时区是真实的当地时间,而不是人们观察到的标准当地时间。上海符合+0800,而不是pytz建议的+0806:

pytz.timezone('Asia/Shanghai')
<DstTzInfo 'Asia/Shanghai' LMT+8:06:00 STD>

编辑:感谢Mark Ransom的评论和不赞成,现在我知道我以错误的方式使用pytz。总而言之,您不应将的结果传递pytz.timezone(…)datetime,而应将传递datetime给其localize方法。

尽管有他的论点(而且我的缺点是不仔细阅读pytz文档),但我将保留这个答案。我以一种方式(尽管不使用pytz枚举受支持的时区)来回答问题,因为我相信pytz不能提供正确的解决方案。尽管我的想法是错误的,但此答案仍在提供一些信息,恕我直言,这可能对对此问题感兴趣的人有用。Pytz正确的做事方式是违反直觉的。哎呀,如果pytz创建tzinfo不应该被直接使用datetime,则它应该是另一种类型。pytz接口设计得很糟糕。马克(Mark)提供的链接表明,很多人(不仅仅是我)被pytz界面所误导。

它们似乎由此处找到tz数据库时区填充

在此处输入图片说明

可从Python3.9获取:

zoneinfo,Python3.9中的新模块,适用于IANA数据库。为了获取所有可用的时区,首先:

pip install tzdata

接着:

import zoneinfo

print(zoneinfo.available_timezones())

我认为这是pytz库的设计缺陷。使用偏移量指定时区应该更可靠,例如

pytz.construct("UTC-07:00")

给您加拿大/太平洋时区。

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